Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: a. Understand variations in spoken language, explaining why language changes in relation to contexts. b. Evaluate the impact of spoken language choices in their own and anothers use. Answer: Introduction: This particular study provides an in-depth understanding of different types of multi-modal conversation. Multimodal conversation is primarily conducted through a particular medium. In order to maintain a communication through multimodal conversation people have to depend on various technological devices such as computer, telephone, smart phone or so on. This particular study has focused to highlight different classifications of spoken language. It has also been pointed out how pattern of spoken language changes time-to-time as per the context. The assignment has also concentrated on the purpose of adapting one specific language in order to make an effective communication. Multi Modal Language and its different features The concept of multimodal conversation is just the opposite of face-to-face communication. In face-to-face communication, people have to make a direct interaction with each other. The sender transmits the message directly to the receiver and the receiver on the other hand provides necessary feedback as per the senders message (David et al. 2011). On the other hand, multi modal conversation is conducted through any particular medium Therefore; the notion of multimodal communication belongs to the opposite category of direct communication, as it possesses some of the distinct characteristics. This type of communication has primarily been classified into two types that include spoken language and written language. The types of spoken language include telephonic conversation, voice message through messenger facebook and various applications. Written language implies that using formal letter, chatting through social media, conducting mail and so on. The primary features of spoken language in multimodal communication are as follows: The feedback of spoken language in multimodal communication is more immediate than even the written language Any kind of miscommunication in spoken conversation may create misunderstanding between the sender and the receiver In case of multimodal communication, the speaker can only use verbal form of conversation, as this type of communication is intense dependent on the medium. The necessary features of written language in multimodal communication are follows: The feedback of written language comes being delayed than spoken language In order to make understand any vital or important issue, written language has been used. One of the most important features of written language is that the conversation is interpersonal. Multimodal conversation possesses a greater positive outcome on people (Hu et al.2015). People like to communicate with each other through various social Medias like facebook, twiteer and messenger. The example of a facebook conversation is as follows: David: Hi Nora: Hello David: How was the day? Nora: It is fantastic...having many fun moments in my college... David: Oh really! How it was. Describe. Therefore, through this discussion it is evident that people can express their spontaneous overflow of emotion with each other. David is from United Kingdom and Nora is from USA. Still they love to share their emotions to each other (Hunston 2008). They can get the opportunity to communicate people beyond going any geographical boundary. As a result, people get accustomed with different culture and background. Consequently, they can get the scope to widen their mental horizon. Furthermore, the example of an informal conversation through text message is as follows: David: Hi Nora: Hello David: I have planned to arrange a get together by in this weekend. Nora: That is great David: Are you interested? Nora: Of course, I am interested. David: Cool. We are meeting at the weekend then. Therefore, this is an out-an-out informal conversation between two close friends through text messages. Text message has a greater impact in order to build the mental development of a particular individual. Here, both the sender and the receiver can exchange their point of views beyond going any formal conversation. Therefore, they can get the scope to expose their emotion that they cannot through facebook conversation. Moreover, the email conversation is more formal where the sender and receiver like to use only for maintaining a necessary conversation. Example that has been provided is as follows: Respected Sir, In response to your email in my personal Gmail account, dated 23 rd January 2016, I beg to state that I would like to work for the post of Academic developer in your company. The details of my academic records have already been sent to this particular mail id. Therefore I shall be highly obliged if you kindly consider me as a part of your company. Thanking you, Your Sincerely, M.H. Abrams In this context, the argument of John Humphyrys and David Crystal is very much relevant for this article. As per the point of view of Humphyrys, text messages with abbreviation style hamper the depth of language (Kathleen 2014). On the other hand, Crystal argues that text messages have enhanced the fluency of language. The communication skill has been increased because of chatting through different applications. Different variations in spoken language explaining how communication changes as per the context Spoken language has been divided into five types primarily that include interactional, referential, expressive, transactional and phatic. Using interactional spoken language both the sender and the receiver can exchange their point of views (Kataoka 2009). Expressive implies that sender or receiver like to expose their view or emption instead of being silent or introvert. Referential conversation goes from any individuals part. It is not like exchanging point of views with other. Here, sender or receiver makes the speech and the other person remains silent. In multimodal ways of conversation, non-verbal communication is not applicable, as the entire procedure has been executed through a particular medium such as electronic devices like telephone, smart phone and so many . Now, verbal communication of multimodal conversation is divided into three categories like interpersonal communication, group communication and mass communication. Interpersonal communication is a type of spoken communication conducted between two people. Group communication is executed among certain number of people and in mass communication, a large number of people have been involved for sending and receiving messages. The way of spoken language changes time-to-time as per the context. For an example, while conducting a group communication, the participants normally would love to use interactional spoken language because a large number of people are involved over here to exchange their point of view (Maalej 2015). On the other hand, when the people are involved in interpersonal communication expressive spoken language can be used because both the sender and the receiver can express themselves as much as possible. The impact of spoken language choice in their own and anothers use With the modern use of Multi modal language, a large number of people are involved in same conversation, specification of a particular language is very much important for maintaining an effective conversation (Mirza 2010). Otherwise, immense barriers occur in between the sender and the receiver. The primary issues that people have to face because of using various spoken languages are as follows: Linguistic barrier: People who are involved in the same conversation needs to needs to continue their study in a specific language so that this particular can be tangible to both of them. Otherwise, linguistic barriers take place in between them. Psychological barrier: If the conversation were not very much effective to both of the participants, they would not be able to understand the messages of each other. As a result, psychological barriers arise among the speakers. Delayed feedback: For the cause of communication barrier, senders and receivers fail to provide immediate feedback to other. It hampers highly on the rhythm of conversation. Therefore, adapting a specific language is very important in order to continue an effective conversation. Multimodal conversation allows the people for communicating any kind of people beyond going any particular geographical boundary (Tiede 2007). As a result, with the help of this specific conversation system people learn to avoid cultural, religious and social barriers within each other and maintain strong communication with them. Conclusion: In this assignment, the various classifications of spoken language have been described in detail. Multimodal conversation provides the opportunity to enhance the mental skill and ability of people. While making an effective conversation with the people of different country, individual gets the scope to learn the culture of that particular country. It helps to enhance the mental horizon of people. For that purpose, the assignment has highlighted that specification in spoken language is very essential so that people can understand the messages of each other. Reference List: David, R., Xiong, N., Yang, L. and Park, J. 2011. Using Multi-Modal Semantic Association Rules to fuse keywords and visual features automatically for Web image retrieval. Information Fusion, 12(3), pp.223-230. Hu, Y., Grossberg, M. and Mageras, G. 2015. What Image Features Are Useful for Tumor Segmentation in Multi-Modal Images. Med. Phys., 42(6), pp.3213-3213. Hunston, S. 2008. The evaluation of status in multi-modal texts. FOL, 15(1), pp.64-83. Kathleen, J. 2014. Multi Modal Face Recognition Using Block Based Curvelet Features. International Journal of Computer Graphics Animation, 4(2), pp.21-37. Kataoka, K. 2009. A multi-modal ethnopoetic analysis (Part 1): Text, gesture, and environment in Japanese spatial narrative. Language and Communication, 29(4), pp.287-311. Maalej, Z. 2015. Mono-modal and multi-modal metaphors and metonymies in policy change: the case of the KSU2030 strategic plan. Language Sciences, 47, pp.1-17. Mirza, D. 2010. Multi-modal optimization techniques for improving qualitative features of biophysical neural models. Front. Neurosci., 4(9), pp.78-100. Tiede, H. 2007. Inessential Features, Ineliminable Features, and Modal Logics for Model Theoretic Syntax. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 17(2), pp.217-227.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
WhitepeopleMorgan Reynolds AP Literature A Nameless Stereotype Ã¢â¬Å"Symbolism exists to adorn and enrich, not to create an artificial sense of profundity. Ã¢â¬ (Stephen King, On Writing). In Ralph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible Man,Ã¢â¬ symbolism plays an excessively important role. More specifically, the symbolism of a particular coin bank and Sambo doll not only add greatly to the themes of the story, but accurately depicts the black manÃ¢â¬â¢s Harlem in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. The protagonist of the story, a nameless young black man, struggles with finding his identity among a society of warring stereotypes. Throughout the novel, the narrator is continuously reminded of the black stereotype thrust upon him. The coin bank serves as a realization of the image many white men still hold regarding African Americans in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Invisible Man, otherwise known as the narrator, awakens to find a coin bank in a guest room of the home owned by the only woman whom he trusts, Mary. We will write a custom essay sample on Invisible Man Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Then near the door I saw something which I had never seen before: the cast-iron figure of a very black, red-lipped and wide-mouthed Negro, whose white eyes stared up at me from the floor, his face an enormous grin, his single large black hand held palm up before his chest. It was a bank, a piece of early Americana, the kind of bank which, if a coin is placed in the hand and a lever pressed upon the back, will raise its arm and flip the coin into the grinning mouth. Ã¢â¬ (Ellison 319). The coin bank embodies the idea of the well-behaved slave, who fawns over white men for trivial rewards such as petty change. The narrator smashes the coin bank due to a sharp hatred for the stereotype that his brethren, and himself, are subjected to. However, he also resents the black men whom embody this stereotype, and make breaking out of it difficult for the rest. The restricting idea of the coin bank appears earlier in the novel during the Ã¢â¬Å"battle royalÃ¢â¬ as well. Ã¢â¬Å"I crawled rapidly around the floor, picking up the coins, trying to avoid the coppers and to get greenbacks and the gold. Ignoring the shock by laughing, as I brushed the coins off quickly, I realized that I could contain the electricity- a contradiction, but it works. Ã¢â¬ (Ellison 27). The battle royal dehumanizes the poor young black man for the sake of entertainment, and reinforces the lowly manner in which they are viewed. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s stereotype follows him throughout life, leaving no chance of proving his reality to the outside world. The Sambo doll, a small paper doll with puppet-like strings, depicts a harsh and undeniably racist stereotype of black entertainers. A grinning doll of orange-and-black tissue paper with thin flat cardboard disks forming itÃ¢â¬â¢s head and feet and which some mysterious mechanism was causing to move up and down in a loose-jointed, shoulder-shaking, infuriatingly sensuous motion, a dance that was completely detached from the black, mask-like face. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no jumping-jack, but what, I thought, seeing the doll throwing itself about with the fierce defiance of someone performing a degrading act in public, dancing as though it received a perverse pleasure from its motion. Ã¢â¬ (Ellison 431). The dolls are introduced to the narrator through a former member of the Ã¢â¬Å"Brotherhood,Ã¢â¬ Todd Clifton. The Brotherhood embodies an unhealthy, communist-like group of black and white men whom seek change through the use of a token spokesperson, typically a young black man with charm and a knack for public speaking. The Brotherhood as a whole subconsciously, or perhaps even consciously, uses this stereotype to their advantage by exploiting charming young black men as poster children for the cause. Ã¢â¬Å"Shake it up! Shake it up! HeÃ¢â¬â¢s Sambo, the dancing doll, ladies and gentlemen. Shake him, stretch him by the neck and set him down, -HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll do the rest. Yes! HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll make you laugh; heÃ¢â¬â¢ll make you sigh, si-igh. HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll make you want to dance, and dance- Here you are, ladies and gentlemen, Sambo, The dancing doll. Buy one for your baby. Take him to your girlfriend and sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll love you, loove you! HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll keep you entertained. HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll make you weep sweet-Tears from laughing. Shake him, shake him, you cannot break him for heÃ¢â¬â¢s Sambo, the dancing, Sambo, the prancing, Sambo, the entertaining, Sambo Boogie Woogie paper doll. Ã¢â¬ (Ellison 431-432). As Clifton sings this song to the onlookers, he not only stereotypes the black man as a mere entertainer for the White, but himself as well. The dancing doll pleases the onlookers through absurd motions. Even though it appears to be moving through sheer willpower, the doll attaches to a string, giving the illusion of a puppeteer bending his puppet to his will. The puppeteer represents the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s control from behind the scenes, such as the case in the Brotherhood. The Sambo doll represents the power and control a stereotype has over a personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Stereotype and prejudice, like the invisible strings of the paper Sambo doll, often manipulate the extent one may or may not achieve in life. The author, Ralph Ellison, provides many political themes throughout the novel. Ã¢â¬Å"Ralph Ellison declared his intention to shape public opinion when he received the National Book Award in 1953 for Invisible Man. In his acceptance speech, he comment that his own attempt to write a major novel derived from a feeling that, Ã¢â¬Ëexcept for the work of William Faulkner, something vital had gone out of American prose since Mark twain. He added that American writers once assumed Ã¢â¬Ëa much greater responsibility for the condition of democracy, and, indeed, their works were imaginative projections of the conflicts within the human heart which arose when the sacred principles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights clashed with the practical exigencies of human greed and fear, hate and love. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Ralph Ellison and the Raft of Hope: A Political Companion to Invisible Man 1). Ellison uses the political and social experiences of the time period in which Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible ManÃ¢â¬ takes place to enhance the reality of the book. He blends the themes of emotion, personal struggle, oppression, and politics in a way that feels most realistic. He uses these to develop the theme of the novel. In the analytical novel, Ã¢â¬Å"Ralph Ellison and the Raft of Hope: A Political Companion to Invisible Man,Ã¢â¬ Ellison is depicted as a man who Ã¢â¬Å"hoped to follow in the footsteps of great American writers not only by developing and honing is craft as they did theirs, but also writing Invisible Man as a deliberate attempt Ã¢â¬Ëto return the mood of personal moral responsibility for Democracy. Through EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s determination and seven year struggle to complete Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible Man,Ã¢â¬ he brought the story of a nameless man to the masses, and not only developed a format of technical literary genius, but stirred up 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s America in his thought provoking novel. Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible ManÃ¢â¬ tells the story of prejudice and stereotype of both black and white men in the early 20th century. The novel is not merely about racism, but more accurately the struggles of finding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity through a state of stereotypes against stereotypes. Works Cited: Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House Inc. 1947. Print. Ralph Ellison and The Raft Of Hope. Lexington, University Press of Kentucky, 2004. Print.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Slavery and serfdom origins essays Geographic factors were not the only important component in the establishment of slavery in American Colonies and Serfdom in Russia. Forced labour in both countries was a result of the shortage of labour in their societies, yet was more significant to the development of Slavery. Also Economic factors contributed to the formation of the systems in each country. Slaves in America provided substantial income to their masters whilst Serfs were forced into the system due to their lingering debts. Matters of race and religion also influenced the establishment of Slavery in American Colonies; on the other hand this component was not particularly associated with the creation of Serfdom in Russia. Slaves were of African descent as they were easily recognisable within the colonies as opposed to the Serfs in Russia, due to a peasants position in society. Geographic factors certainly influenced the creation of forced labour in both societies, however other various aspects were considered addit ionally vital in the establishment of Slavery and Serfdom in both countries. Geographic factors were not the primary reason for the development of Slavery in America. Climate impacted the Western settlers, as they were accustomed to the colder weather, while in America humidity was mainly prevalent. Due to this factor Africans were forced into Slavery, as they tended to cope better with climatic conditions in America, with the exception of those brought in from the Caribbean, as they were unfamiliarised with these conditions. An additional geographic factor saw Africans being enslaved in countries near to the America colonies, thus ensuring the ease of their transportation. Vicinity also played a role in the formation of forced labour in American colonies, as Southern states of America required a greater amount of labour due to the maintenance of agricultural land and the farming of cotton, tobacco and other crops. The climatic conditions in...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Manifest Destiny - Essay Example The increase in population of the initial 13 Colonies and the growth of the United States economy increased the desire to grow into additional land. The Manifest Destiny concept tremendously influenced the United States policy. This enhanced the American expansion to the West. The idea was largely put forward by posters, newspapers and other avenues. Despite the fact that it was not a formal policy of the government, it facilitated the passing of legislations like the Homestead Act, which promoted colonization and acquisition of areas in the West (Robinson 2010, 21). Additionally, the idea was a factor in the thought of America. Movement into the West regions provided a prospect for self development. To be familiar with the concept of Manifest Destiny, it is essential to comprehend the desire and need of the United States to expand. This paper will look at how issues around it affected the U.S, how the views of Americans on the issue changed over the period, and will also mention some events as examples. John OSullivan, a U.S newspaper editor writing on the planned occupation of Texas, was the first to use the term in 1845. He asserted that it was AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"manifest destiny to spread to the whole continent.Ã¢â¬ The newspaper issue recommended that through expanding, America could turn out to be a renowned superpower. According to OSullivan, United States had been exclusively selected for the mission of Westward expansion. This would push out the wilderness and bring civilization. Between independence and 1920, the government passed land laws that were favorable for people to migrate. The federal government also persuaded people from Europe to come and inhabit. It used the military to protect the settlers from natives. It further put money into explorations, such as that of Clark and Lewis. Wherever there was sufficient water, homesteading was practiced by people from the Midwest to the Pacific regions. Cheap and available land,